What is Sentiment Analysis in NLP?

Sentiment Analysis with NLP: A Deep Dive into Methods and Tools by Divine Jude

is sentiment analysis nlp

A. Sentiment analysis in NLP (Natural Language Processing) is the process of determining the sentiment or emotion expressed in a piece of text, such as positive, negative, or neutral. It involves using machine learning algorithms and linguistic techniques to analyze and classify subjective information. Sentiment analysis finds applications in social media monitoring, customer feedback analysis, market research, and other areas where understanding sentiment Chat PG is crucial. Sentiment analysis focuses on determining the emotional tone expressed in a piece of text. Its primary goal is to classify the sentiment as positive, negative, or neutral, especially valuable in understanding customer opinions, reviews, and social media comments. Sentiment analysis algorithms analyse the language used to identify the prevailing sentiment and gauge public or individual reactions to products, services, or events.

is sentiment analysis nlp

It offers various pre-trained models and lexicons for sentiment analysis tasks. The analysis revealed a correlation between lower star ratings and negative sentiment in the textual reviews. Common themes in negative reviews included app crashes, difficulty progressing through lessons, and lack of engaging content.

Each class’s collections of words or phrase indicators are defined for to locate desirable patterns on unannotated text. Over the years, in subjective detection, the features extraction progression from curating features by hand to automated features learning. At the moment, automated learning methods can further separate into supervised and unsupervised machine learning. Patterns extraction with machine learning process annotated and unannotated text have been explored extensively by academic researchers. Sentiment analysis is popular in marketing because we can use it to analyze customer feedback about a product or brand. By data mining product reviews and social media content, sentiment analysis provides insight into customer satisfaction and brand loyalty.

But the next question in NPS surveys, asking why survey participants left the score they did, seeks open-ended responses, or qualitative data. Sentiment analysis allows you to automatically monitor all chatter around your brand and detect and address this type of potentially-explosive scenario while you still have time to defuse it. What you are left with is an accurate assessment of everything customers have written, rather than a simple tabulation of stars.

Real-time sentiment analysis allows you to identify potential PR crises and take immediate action before they become serious issues. Or identify positive comments and respond directly, to use them to your benefit. On average, inter-annotator agreement (a measure of how well two (or more) human labelers can make the same annotation decision) is pretty low when it comes to sentiment analysis. And since machines learn from labeled data, sentiment analysis classifiers might not be as precise as other types of classifiers. The problem is there is no textual cue that will help a machine learn, or at least question that sentiment since yeah and sure often belong to positive or neutral texts. More recently, new feature extraction techniques have been applied based on word embeddings (also known as word vectors).

Now, we will check for custom input as well and let our model identify the sentiment of the input statement. We will pass this as a parameter to GridSearchCV to train our random forest classifier model using all possible combinations of these parameters to find the best model. ‘ngram_range’ is a parameter, which we use to give importance to the combination of words, such as, “social media” has a different meaning than “social” and “media” separately. Now, we will use the Bag of Words Model(BOW), which is used to represent the text in the form of a bag of words,i.e. The grammar and the order of words in a sentence are not given any importance, instead, multiplicity,i.e. (the number of times a word occurs in a document) is the main point of concern.

In China, the incident became the number one trending topic on Weibo, a microblogging site with almost 500 million users. Here’s a quite comprehensive list of emojis and their unicode characters that may come in handy when preprocessing. Hybrid systems combine the desirable elements of rule-based and automatic techniques into one system. One huge benefit of these systems is that results are often more accurate. By taking each TrustPilot category from 1-Bad to 5-Excellent, and breaking down the text of the written reviews from the scores you can derive the above graphic. Now we jump to something that anchors our text-based sentiment to TrustPilot’s earlier results.

Further, they propose a new way of conducting marketing in libraries using social media mining and sentiment analysis. For a recommender system, sentiment analysis has been proven to be a valuable technique. A recommender system aims to predict the preference for an item of a target user. For example, collaborative filtering works on the rating matrix, and content-based filtering works on the meta-data of the items.

Analyze news articles, blogs, forums, and more to gauge brand sentiment, and target certain demographics or regions, as desired. Automatically categorize the urgency of all brand mentions and route them instantly to designated team members. Read on for a step-by-step walkthrough of how sentiment analysis works. Finally, we can take a look at Sentiment by Topic to begin to illustrate how sentiment analysis can take us even further into our data. While there is a ton more to explore, in this breakdown we are going to focus on four sentiment analysis data visualization results that the dashboard has visualized for us.

Model Evaluation

Sentiment analysis is the process of detecting positive or negative sentiment in text. It’s often used by businesses to detect sentiment in social data, gauge brand reputation, and understand customers. Regardless of the level or extent of its training, software has a hard time correctly identifying irony and sarcasm in a body of text. This is because often when someone is being sarcastic or ironic it’s conveyed through their tone of voice or facial expression and there is no discernable difference in the words they’re using. Emotional detection sentiment analysis seeks to understand the psychological state of the individual behind a body of text, including their frame of mind when they were writing it and their intentions.

Do you want to train a custom model for sentiment analysis with your own data? You can fine-tune a model using Trainer API to build on top of large language models and get state-of-the-art results. If you want something even easier, you can use AutoNLP to train custom machine learning models by simply uploading data.

is sentiment analysis nlp

Nike can focus on amplifying positive aspects and addressing concerns raised in negative comments. Nike, a leading sportswear brand, launched a new line of running shoes with the goal of reaching a younger audience. To understand user perception and assess the campaign’s effectiveness, Nike analyzed the sentiment of comments on its Instagram posts related to the new shoes. Sentiment Analysis in NLP, is used to determine the sentiment expressed in a piece of text, such as a review, comment, or social media post. You can use sentiment analysis and text classification to automatically organize incoming support queries by topic and urgency to route them to the correct department and make sure the most urgent are handled right away.

The first review is definitely a positive one and it signifies that the customer was really happy with the sandwich. Email filtering is one of the most basic and early uses of NLP online. It all started with spam filters, which looked for certain terms or phrases that indicated a spam message.

For example, if an investor sees the public leaving negative feedback about a brand’s new product line, they might assume the company will not meet expected sales targets and sell that company’s stock. Since rules-based and machine learning-based methods each have pros and cons, some systems combine both approaches to reduce the downsides of using just one. The hybrid approach is useful when certain words hold more weight and is also a great way to tackle domains that have a lot of jargon. A rule-based approach involves using a set of rules to determine the sentiment of a text. For example, a rule might state that any text containing the word “love” is positive, while any text containing the word “hate” is negative. If the text includes both “love” and “hate,” it’s considered neutral or unknown.

To further strengthen the model, you could considering adding more categories like excitement and anger. In this tutorial, you have only scratched the surface by building a rudimentary model. Here’s a detailed guide on various considerations that one must take care of while performing sentiment analysis. In the data preparation step, you will prepare the data for sentiment analysis by converting tokens to the dictionary form and then split the data for training and testing purposes. VADER is a lexicon and rule-based sentiment analysis tool specifically designed for social media text.

Businesses frequently utilize it to identify sentiment in social data, assess brand reputation, and gain a better understanding of their consumers. A company launching a new line of organic skincare products needed to gauge consumer opinion before a major marketing campaign. To understand the potential market and identify areas for improvement, they employed sentiment analysis on social media conversations and online reviews mentioning the products. AutoNLP is a tool to train state-of-the-art machine learning models without code.

It can be used in combination with machine learning models for sentiment analysis tasks. Duolingo, a popular language learning app, received a significant number of negative reviews on the Play Store citing app crashes and difficulty completing lessons. To understand the specific issues and improve customer service, Duolingo employed sentiment analysis on their Play Store reviews. But you’ll need a team of data scientists and engineers on board, huge upfront investments, and time to spare. Brands and businesses make decisions based on the information extracted from such textual artifacts. Investment companies monitor tweets (and other textual data) as one of the variables in their investment models — Elon Musk has been known to make such financially impactful tweets every once in a while!

We already looked at how we can use sentiment analysis in terms of the broader VoC, so now we’ll dial in on customer service teams. Discover how we analyzed the sentiment of thousands of Facebook reviews, and transformed them into actionable insights. You can use it on incoming surveys and support tickets to detect customers who are ‘strongly negative’ and target them immediately to improve https://chat.openai.com/ their service. Zero in on certain demographics to understand what works best and how you can improve. Businesses use these scores to identify customers as promoters, passives, or detractors. The goal is to identify overall customer experience, and find ways to elevate all customers to “promoter” level, where they, theoretically, will buy more, stay longer, and refer other customers.

Sentiment analysis may also be utilized to derive insights from the vast amounts of consumer input accessible (online reviews, social media, and surveys) while saving hundreds of hours of staff work. Subsequently, the method described in a patent by Volcani and Fogel,[5] looked specifically at sentiment and identified individual words and phrases in text with respect to different emotional scales. A current system based on their work, called EffectCheck, presents synonyms that can be used to increase or decrease the level of evoked emotion in each scale.

Problem Formulation

This text extraction can be done using different techniques such as Naive Bayes, Support Vector machines, hidden Markov model, and conditional random fields like this machine learning techniques are used. Another good way to go deeper with sentiment analysis is mastering your knowledge and skills in natural language processing (NLP), the computer science field that focuses on understanding ‘human’ language. The above chart applies product-linked text classification in addition to sentiment analysis to pair given sentiment to product/service specific features, this is known as aspect-based sentiment analysis. With more ways than ever for people to express their feelings online, organizations need powerful tools to monitor what’s being said about them and their products and services in near real time.

Using pre-trained models publicly available on the Hub is a great way to get started right away with sentiment analysis. These models use deep learning architectures such as transformers that achieve state-of-the-art performance on sentiment analysis and other machine learning tasks. However, you can fine-tune a model with your own data to further improve the sentiment analysis results and get an extra boost of accuracy in your particular use case. Today’s most effective customer support sentiment analysis solutions use the power of AI and ML to improve customer experiences.

Real-Time Twitch Chat Sentiment Analysis with Apache Flink by Volker Janz Mar, 2024 – Towards Data Science

Real-Time Twitch Chat Sentiment Analysis with Apache Flink by Volker Janz Mar, 2024.

Posted: Wed, 27 Mar 2024 16:54:31 GMT [source]

For example, “run”, “running” and “runs” are all forms of the same lexeme, where the “run” is the lemma. Hence, we are converting all occurrences of the same lexeme to their respective lemma. Change the different forms of a word into a single item called a lemma. Because, without converting to lowercase, it will cause an issue when we will create vectors of these words, as two different vectors will be created for the same word which we don’t want to. Now, let’s get our hands dirty by implementing Sentiment Analysis using NLP, which will predict the sentiment of a given statement.

Tools for Sentiment Analysis

Similarly, if the tag starts with VB, the token is assigned as a verb. This code imports the WordNetLemmatizer class and initializes it to a variable, lemmatizer. You can foun additiona information about ai customer service and artificial intelligence and NLP. In general, if a tag starts with NN, the word is a noun and if it stars with VB, the word is a verb. Here, the .tokenized() method returns special characters such as @ and _. These characters will be removed through regular expressions later in this tutorial.

is sentiment analysis nlp

Natural language processing has been researched for over 50 years and sprang from the field of linguistics as computers became more common. Overall, these algorithms highlight the need for automatic pattern recognition and extraction in subjective and objective task. To incorporate this into a function that normalizes a sentence, you should first generate the tags for each token in the text, and then lemmatize each word using the tag.

It provides a friendly and easy-to-use user interface, where you can train custom models by simply uploading your data. AutoNLP will automatically fine-tune various pre-trained models with your data, take care of the hyperparameter tuning and find the best model for your use case. All models trained with AutoNLP are deployed and ready for production. In this section, we’ll go over two approaches on how to fine-tune a model for sentiment analysis with your own data and criteria. The first approach uses the Trainer API from the 🤗Transformers, an open source library with 50K stars and 1K+ contributors and requires a bit more coding and experience.

Unsupervised Learning methods aim to discover sentiment patterns within text without the need for labelled data. Techniques like Topic Modelling (e.g., Latent Dirichlet Allocation or LDA) and Word Embeddings (e.g., Word2Vec, GloVe) can help uncover underlying sentiment signals in text. The positive sentiment majority indicates that the campaign resonated well with the target audience.

This article assumes that you are familiar with the basics of Python (see our How To Code in Python 3 series), primarily the use of data structures, classes, and methods. The tutorial assumes that you have no background in NLP and nltk, although some knowledge on it is an added advantage. When the banking group wanted a new tool that brought customers closer to the bank, they turned to expert.ai to create a better user experience. The analysis revealed that 60% of comments were positive, 30% were neutral, and 10% were negative. Positive comments praised the shoes’ design, comfort, and performance.

Rule-based systems are very naive since they don’t take into account how words are combined in a sequence. Of course, more advanced processing techniques can be used, and new rules added to support new expressions and vocabulary. However, adding new rules may affect previous results, and the whole system can get very complex.

  • Or maybe you are one of those who just do not leave reviews — then, how about making any textual posts or comments on Twitter, Facebook or Instagram?
  • For example, words in a positive lexicon might include “affordable,” “fast” and “well-made,” while words in a negative lexicon might feature “expensive,” “slow” and “poorly made”.
  • A comparison of stemming and lemmatization ultimately comes down to a trade off between speed and accuracy.

This is exactly the kind of PR catastrophe you can avoid with sentiment analysis. It’s an example of why it’s important to care, not only about if people are talking about your brand, but how they’re talking about it. In this context, sentiment is positive, but we’re sure you can come up with many different contexts in which the same response can express negative sentiment.

As we humans communicate with each other in a way that we call Natural Language which is easy for us to interpret but it’s much more complicated and messy if we really look into it. Now, as we said we will be creating a Sentiment Analysis using NLP Model, but it’s easier said than done. And, the third one doesn’t signify whether that customer is happy or not, and hence we can consider this as a neutral statement. The second review is negative, and hence the company needs to look into their burger department.

This information can inform investment decisions and help make predictions about the financial health of a company — or even the economy as a whole. Understanding public approval is obviously important in politics, which makes sentiment analysis a popular tool for political campaigns. A politician’s team can use sentiment analysis to monitor the reception of political campaigns and debates, thereby allowing candidates to adjust their messaging and strategy. We can also use sentiment analysis to track media bias in order to gauge whether content evokes a positive or negative emotion about a certain candidate.

Use of Sentiment Analysis in NLP

For example, a rule-based system could be used to preprocess data and identify explicit sentiment cues, which are then fed into a machine learning model for fine-grained sentiment analysis. It would take several hours to read through all of the reviews and classify them appropriately. However, using data science and NLP, we can transform those reviews into something a computer understands. Once the reviews are in a computer-readable format, we can use a sentiment analysis model to determine whether the reviews reflect positive or negative emotions. In this tutorial, you will prepare a dataset of sample tweets from the NLTK package for NLP with different data cleaning methods. Once the dataset is ready for processing, you will train a model on pre-classified tweets and use the model to classify the sample tweets into negative and positives sentiments.

As a result of recent advances in deep learning algorithms’ capacity to analyze text has substantially improved. When employed imaginatively, advanced artificial intelligence algorithms may be a useful tool for doing in-depth research. This analysis aids in identifying the emotional tone, polarity of the remark, and the subject. Natural language processing, like machine learning, is a branch of AI that enables computers to understand, interpret, and alter human language. There are various other types of sentiment analysis, such as aspect-based sentiment analysis, grading sentiment analysis (positive, negative, neutral), multilingual sentiment analysis and detection of emotions.

It is a data visualization technique used to depict text in such a way that, the more frequent words appear enlarged as compared to less frequent words. This gives us a little insight into, how the data looks after being processed through all the steps until now. Suppose, there is a fast-food chain company and they sell a variety of different food items like burgers, pizza, sandwiches, milkshakes, etc.

Now that you’ve tested both positive and negative sentiments, update the variable to test a more complex sentiment like sarcasm. The most basic form of analysis on textual data is to take out the word frequency. A single tweet is too small of an entity to find out the distribution of words, hence, the analysis of the frequency of words would be done on all positive tweets.

Before you proceed, comment out the last line that prints the sample tweet from the script. The function lemmatize_sentence first gets the position tag of each token of a tweet. Within the if statement, if the tag starts with NN, the token is assigned as a noun.

Negation is when a negative word is used to convey a reversal of meaning in a sentence. Sentiment analysis, or opinion mining, is the process of analyzing large volumes of text to determine whether it expresses a positive sentiment, a negative sentiment or a neutral sentiment. Understanding consumers’ feelings have become more important than ever before as the customer service industry has grown increasingly automated through the use of machine learning. The comments and reviews of the goods are frequently displayed on social media. It is much easier to evaluate your client retention rate when you have access to sentiment data about your firm and new items. The algorithm is trained on a large corpus of annotated text data, where the sentiment class of each text has been manually labeled.

The objective and challenges of sentiment analysis can be shown through some simple examples. We will also remove the code that was commented out by following the tutorial, along with the lemmatize_sentence function, as the lemmatization is completed by the new remove_noise function. To summarize, you extracted the tweets from nltk, tokenized, normalized, and cleaned up the tweets for using in the model. Finally, you also looked at the frequencies of tokens in the data and checked the frequencies of the top ten tokens. Since we will normalize word forms within the remove_noise() function, you can comment out the lemmatize_sentence() function from the script.

A prime example of symbolic learning is chatbot design, which, when designed with a symbolic approach, starts with a knowledge base of common questions and subsequent answers. As more users engage with the chatbot and newer, different questions arise, the knowledge base is fine-tuned and supplemented. As a result, common questions are answered via the chatbot’s knowledge base, while more complex or detailed questions get fielded to either a live chat or a dedicated customer service line.

Sentiment analysis is one of the hardest tasks in natural language processing because even humans struggle to analyze sentiments accurately. Watsonx Assistant automates repetitive tasks and uses machine learning to resolve customer support issues quickly and efficiently. Different sorts of businesses are using Natural Language Processing for sentiment analysis to extract information from social data and recognize the influence of social media on brands and goods. Have you ever left an online review for a product, service or maybe a movie? Or maybe you are one of those who just do not leave reviews — then, how about making any textual posts or comments on Twitter, Facebook or Instagram? If the answer is yes, then there is a good chance that algorithms have already reviewed your textual data in order to extract some valuable information from it.

Sentiment Analysis Tools & Tutorials

We can even break these principal sentiments(positive and negative) into smaller sub sentiments such as “Happy”, “Love”, ”Surprise”, “Sad”, “Fear”, “Angry” etc. as per the needs or business requirement. In a time overwhelmed by huge measures of computerized information, understanding popular assessment and feeling has become progressively pivotal. Feeling investigation, a subset of normal language handling, offers a way to extricate experiences from printed information by knowing the close to home tone and demeanor communicated is sentiment analysis nlp inside Sentiment Analysis using NLP. This acquaintance fills in as a preliminary with investigate the complexities of feeling examination, from its crucial ideas to its down to earth applications and execution. Customer service firms frequently employ sentiment analysis to automatically categorize their users’ incoming calls as “urgent” or “not urgent.” One of the most essential purposes of sentiment analysis is to get a complete 360-degree perspective of how your consumers perceive your product, organization, or brand.

Most marketing departments are already tuned into online mentions as far as volume – they measure more chatter as more brand awareness. If you are new to sentiment analysis, then you’ll quickly notice improvements. For typical use cases, such as ticket routing, brand monitoring, and VoC analysis, you’ll save a lot of time and money on tedious manual tasks. Imagine the responses above come from answers to the question What did you like about the event? The first response would be positive and the second one would be negative, right? Now, imagine the responses come from answers to the question What did you DISlike about the event?

For example, say you’re a property management firm and want to create a repair ticket system for tenants based on a narrative intake form on your website. Machine learning-based systems would sort words used in service requests for “plumbing,” “electrical” or “carpentry” in order to eventually route them to the appropriate repair professional. The goal of sentiment analysis is to classify the text based on the mood or mentality expressed in the text, which can be positive negative, or neutral. Automatic methods, contrary to rule-based systems, don’t rely on manually crafted rules, but on machine learning techniques.

On top of that, if the training set contains biased or inaccurate data, the resulting model will also be biased or inaccurate. Depending on the domain, it could take a team of experts several days, or even weeks, to annotate a training set and review it for biases and inaccuracies. Additionally, these methods are naive, which means they look at each word individually and don’t account for the complexity that arises from a sequence of words. This is one of the reasons machine learning approaches have taken over. Large language models like Google’s BERT have been trained in a way that allow the computer to better understand sequences of words and their context.

Negative comments expressed dissatisfaction with the price, fit, or availability. Multilingual consists of different languages where the classification needs to be done as positive, negative, and neutral. For training, you will be using the Trainer API, which is optimized for fine-tuning Transformers🤗 models such as DistilBERT, BERT and RoBERTa. If you want to get started with these out-of-the-box tools, check out this guide to the best SaaS tools for sentiment analysis, which also come with APIs for seamless integration with your existing tools. Sentiment analysis is a vast topic, and it can be intimidating to get started. Luckily, there are many useful resources, from helpful tutorials to all kinds of free online tools, to help you take your first steps.

This kind of representations makes it possible for words with similar meaning to have a similar representation, which can improve the performance of classifiers. In the prediction process (b), the feature extractor is used to transform unseen text inputs into feature vectors. These feature vectors are then fed into the model, which generates predicted tags (again, positive, negative, or neutral). If Chewy wanted to unpack the what and why behind their reviews, in order to further improve their services, they would need to analyze each and every negative review at a granular level. Sentiment analysis can identify critical issues in real-time, for example is a PR crisis on social media escalating? Sentiment analysis models can help you immediately identify these kinds of situations, so you can take action right away.

It’s a useful asset, yet like any device, its worth comes from how it’s utilized. Sentiment analysis is a mind boggling task because of the innate vagueness of human language. Subsequently, the precision of opinion investigation generally relies upon the intricacy of the errand and the framework’s capacity to gain from a lot of information. And, because of this upgrade, when any company promotes their products on Facebook, they receive more specific reviews which will help them to enhance the customer experience.

Sentiment Analysis, as the name suggests, it means to identify the view or emotion behind a situation. It basically means to analyze and find the emotion or intent behind a piece of text or speech or any mode of communication. Many languages do not allow for direct translation and have differing sentence structure ordering, which translation systems previously ignored. Online translators can use NLP to better precisely translate languages and offer grammatically correct results. Sentiment analysis may identify sarcasm, interpret popular chat acronyms (LOL, ROFL, etc.), and correct for frequent errors like misused and misspelled words, among other things. Not only that, but you can rely on machine learning to see trends and predict results, allowing you to remain ahead of the game and shift from reactive to proactive mode.

In this article, I compile various techniques of how to perform SA, ranging from simple ones like TextBlob and NLTK to more advanced ones like Sklearn and Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) networks. NLP has many tasks such as Text Generation, Text Classification, Machine Translation, Speech Recognition, Sentiment Analysis, etc. For a beginner to NLP, looking at these tasks and all the techniques involved in handling such tasks can be quite daunting.

Depending on the requirement of your analysis, all of these versions may need to be converted to the same form, “run”. Normalization in NLP is the process of converting a word to its canonical form. Consider the phrase “I like the movie, but the soundtrack is awful.” The sentiment toward the movie and soundtrack might differ, posing a challenge for accurate analysis. In the marketing area where a particular product needs to be reviewed as good or bad.

Top 15 sentiment analysis tools to consider in 2024 – Sprout Social

Top 15 sentiment analysis tools to consider in 2024.

Posted: Tue, 16 Jan 2024 08:00:00 GMT [source]

One direction of work is focused on evaluating the helpfulness of each review.[76] Review or feedback poorly written is hardly helpful for recommender system. Besides, a review can be designed to hinder sales of a target product, thus be harmful to the recommender system even it is well written. Then, to determine the polarity of the text, the computer calculates the total score, which gives better insight into how positive or negative something is compared to just labeling it. For example, if we get a sentence with a score of 10, we know it is more positive than something with a score of five. Finally, you can use the NaiveBayesClassifier class to build the model. Use the .train() method to train the model and the .accuracy() method to test the model on the testing data.

Running this command from the Python interpreter downloads and stores the tweets locally. Whether we realize it or not, we’ve all been contributing to Sentiment Analysis data since the early 2000s. We have created this notebook so you can use it through this tutorial in Google Colab. There are a large number of courses, lectures, and resources available online, but the essential NLP course is the Stanford Coursera course by Dan Jurafsky and Christopher Manning. By taking this course, you will get a step-by-step introduction to the field by two of the most reputable names in the NLP community. Numerical (quantitative) survey data is easily aggregated and assessed.

As companies adopt sentiment analysis and begin using it to analyze more conversations and interactions, it will become easier to identify customer friction points at every stage of the customer journey. Discover what the public is saying about a new product just after its sale, or examine years of comments you may not have seen before. You may train sentiment analysis models to obtain exactly the information you need by searching terms for a certain product attribute (interface, UX, functionality). Typically, social media stream analysis is limited to simple sentiment analysis and count-based indicators.

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